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Kaip ir kodėl futbolas tapo globaliu fenomenu?



Sveiki, kaip ir žadėjau įkelsiu savo darbą universitetui, kurio tema buvo Kaip ir kodėl futbolas tapo globaliu fenomenu?. Teksto į lietuvių kalbą nebe verčiau, nes gautųsi kaip dvigubas didelis darbas, būtent todėl ir patalpinau savo rašinį blogo skiltyje.


Trumpai apie studijas. Šiaip esu pasirinkęs archeologijos kursą, tačiau renkantis studijų programas reikėjo išsirinkti modulį, kuris tiesiogiai nesisieja su pasirinkta studijų kryptimi, taigi šis darbas yra skirtas Global History kursui, kurio pagrindinė niša yra globalizacijos reiškinys pasaulio istorijoje, todėl šiame rašinyje matysite daug skaičių, datų ir t.t. Smagaus skaitymo!

 

HR105 Essay: In what ways and why has football become a global phenomenon?

 

Nowadays, we cannot imagine our surroundings without globalisation effect. The facilities like shops, restaurants we are using and even a common communication with people brings us into multicultural environment. It is clear that the usage of things which reached us because of globalisation became norm. Football is not an exception and in this essay we will take a look, what made one of the most popular sports in the world so global.
 

One of the main reasons why football became so global is because of its expansion throughout the world. In 1930, the first World cup took place in Uruguay and only sixteen teams competed.[1] It is also worth mentioning that the countries, which played in Uruguay came from only three different continents: Europe, North America and South America. This system was valid until 1982, when the World Cup tournament was expanded to twenty four teams.[2] However, throughout those 52 years, FIFA did not remain in the same position. As an example, the second World Cup in Italy in 1934, was the first time that the tournament was held in Europe, and Egypt was the first country to represent Africa in this competition.[3] While the Dutch East Indies (currently Indonesia) technically became the first Asian country, to play in the World Cup, which took place in France in 1938. Furthermore, North America became the third continent in which the World Cup was held, when Mexico was the host country in 1970.[4] And in 1974, Australia became the first nation to represent Oceania during the World Cup in West Germany.[5] So, in less than fifty years and in only ten tournaments (in 1942 and 1946 the World Cup was not held because of World War II) the World Cup managed to bring the biggest football tournament into three different continents and involved countries directly from all over the world. It is quite an achievement, considering that technology and communication was not as easy and perfect as it is now.
 

As I mentioned, in 1982 the number of teams were extended to twenty four, and in 1998 for the first time thirty two nations participated in the World Cup.[6] The most recent news about expanding the World Cup was announced this year when FIFA confirmed that in 2026 there will be forty eight participants, which means an even bigger diversity of nations and fans.[7] Continuing the expansion of World Cup, South Korea and Japan held the competition in 2002, meaning that Asia joined the group of continents which have hosted the tournament.[8] And in 2010, Africa became the latest continent for the World Cup to have taken place, when South Africa was a host country.[9] So, it is clear that FIFA throughout all these years have been working towards football’s popularity increasing around the globe and bringing it to as many people as possible
 

Another reason why football became so global is because of broadcasting and its development. The World Cup in Switzerland in 1954 was the first World Cup to be broadcasted in the United Kingdom.[10] However, it had plenty of limitations like a small number of broadcasted matches or late highlights.[11] However, technology was improving and the World Cup, which was held England in 1966 is considered as a breaking point in football’s broadcasting. For the very first time World Cup was broadcasted internationally and another part of global football began.[12] This World Cup was broadcasted or at least televised in 75 countries.[13] It also shows how impressively technology had developed – to improve from very poor services to every match being broadcasted with the potential to reach 75 different countries in twelve years is simply amazing. New, slow–motion replay technology was also applied in this World Cup and made football even more attractive and popular for a majority of people.[14] And within four years another huge improvement was made. The World Cup in Mexico, in 1970 was broadcasted in colour.[15] FIFA were trying to reach every part of the world by bringing football to television and we can state that this plan worked because as I mentioned, 75 countries were able to watch top–level football in 1960s and this fact was, and still is making football global. Football and technology continued to work together and in 1990, when the World Cup took place in Italy, television viewers for the first time saw statistical graphs.[16] A further development that was related to broadcast was video quality. Games went from black and white to technicolour and poor video quality to high definition, and in 2010 World Cup matches were able to be broadcasted for the first time using 3D technology.[17] And three matches of the 2014 World Cup were broadcasted at an even better, Ultra HD/4K quality.[18] So, these improvements in rather quick time allowed football to expand throughout the world.
 

Leaving World Cup aside, I will take a look into the Premier League as well. The beginning of the Premier League broadcast in the United Kingdom was completely different than with the World Cup. In 1992 when the Premier League started, the British Sky Broadcasting company bought broadcasting rights for five years for £304 million, showing that interest in football was very big, and the services and infrastructure were better, too.[19] In the USA, huge football fans were also able to see the Premier League from its first season.[20] However, it was only one match per week, which was edited and condensed.[21] The biggest increase in popularity of the Premier League began in the early 2000s. In 2001, Premier League made £178 million from television rights, while in 2008, England’s top flight was visible in 202 different countries.[22] Also, up until 2010 there was a deal, which was worth 625 million pounds.[23] However, the most recent deals are even more astonishing. From 2016/17 to 2018/19, from international TV rights Premier League will earn £5.1 billion.[24] Also, the number of countries, which can see Premier League grew up to 225.[25] So, nowadays football is available for the majority of the whole world and the world is watching. For example, 3.2 billion people tuned in TV to watch 2014 World Cup in Brazil, while more than one billion people were watching the final match.[26] While in March 2015, a match between Liverpool and Manchester United attracted approximately 700 million fans all over the world.[27] Finally, the Premier League audience at-home, in 2014/15 season was on average 3 billion each week.[28] So, these numbers show how broadcasting changed football and made it a global phenomenon.
 

Also, the sponsorship of FIFA and English Premier League is worth mentioning. For example, Coca–Cola has had its adverts in the World Cup since 1950.[29] Knowing that Coca–Cola is a brand, which is known worldwide and was already famous in 20th century, it can be directly related to the globalisation of football. However, Coca–Cola is not the only global brand, which has had sustainable collaboration. A relationship between FIFA and Adidas continues since its establishment in 1970[30], while another giant is McDonald’s, which is involved in only the World Cup and the Confederation Cup tournaments since 1994.[31] So, we can assume that co-operation with these kinds of companies before 21st century can be valued as crucial. Through their involvement, FIFA were able to maintain their influence in television and proceed to social media and internet alongside their partners, which already were global companies before the rise of social networking. Also, FIFA has had a partnership with financial service giants VISA since 2007.[32] There is no doubt to how it makes football global – people all over the world are using debit or credit cards, which have the VISA logo on. The latest partners such as Gazprom[33] and Wanda Group[34] is potentially more dedicated to the Asian and Russian market but both Asia and Russia have plenty of people, who can be involved in football and join the multi-ethnic football nation. So, FIFA has partners from all over the world, which are one of the best in their area of the market and in this way help to strengthen the globalisation of football.
 

The English Premier League is also worth mentioning. One of the main league’s flagship was, and still is Barclays Bank.[35] Barclays is one of the biggest bank groups in the world, which was founded in the 17th century. From 2004 to 2016 the league was called Barclays Premier League because the Barclays was the main sponsor of the league.[36] Another big global company and partner of Premier League is the sportswear giant Nike. This partnership has lasted for 15 years already and the main purpose of Nike is to supply the official ball for the Premier League.[37] Furthermore, teams such as Arsenal, Manchester United or Manchester City were or is still wearing Nike kits, while Chelsea will start wearing it after announcement about a new deal with American sportswear giant.[38] Finally, another partner of the Premier League is the videogame company EA Sports. This partnership began in 2010 and this season, EA Sports became the main sponsor of the English Premier League after their long-standing relationship was extended in 2016.[39] EA Sports flagship is the video game FIFA, which is one of the most popular video games in the world. It allows for gamers to enjoy something new about the teams, stadiums and players of the English Premier League. Just like FIFA, the English Premier League has strong sponsors, which are throughout the world and hold strong positions in the world market. So, to summarise the meaning of sponsorship, it connects football, companies and people from all over the world, which makes football a global phenomenal.
 

Another reason why football became so global is players’ transfers from one club to another. Nowadays, there is nothing special if player has played in three or four different countries. For example, when the Premier League was established in 1992 there were only eleven players, who were not from the United Kingdom.[40] While today this number has increased to up to seventy different nationalities on average.[41] So we can see how the league and transfers have changed overall. And if we take a look at several of the biggest football transfers, the tendency is that footballers leave their clubs for another country. For example, French player Paul Pogba moved from Juventus to Manchester United this summer for £89 million.[42] It is also a perfect example of how global football is because it directly involves three countries: France, where Pogba was born, Juventus as an Italian team for which he played and Manchester United, his current team. If we take a look at the top ten transfers in football history, we can see that only one transfer happened between clubs that are in the same country, while the rest involved two clubs from two different countries.[43] Furthermore, if we analyse the owners of Premier League clubs, we can see a variety of nationalities present. The first foreigner, who bought an English club was Roman Abramovich, the owner of Chelsea.[44] The Russian billionaire has owned the club since 2003 and was one of the only three owners who was not an Englishman at the beginning of the 2004/05 Premier League season.[45] In comparison, today only four Premier League clubs are owned by Englishmen, while the other sixteen clubs have at least one foreigner on their ownership board. [46]
 

Knowing that owners are closely related to the club’s transfers policy (because of the investments they make) I want to take a look at Manchester City’s situation. The club is owned by Sheikh Mansour Bin Zayed Al Nahyan, who bought the club in 2008.[47] However, the most interesting part of it is City Football Group, which was established in 2014. This holding company is owned by Abu Dhabi United Group Investment & Development Limited, which belongs to Mansour Bin Zayed Al Nahyan. Furthermore, City Football Group own clubs in several continents. Manchester City is their flagship and represents England and Europe. For example, in Australia the holding company owns Melbourne City.[48] While in North America, this group holds New York City, which plays in the Major League Soccer (MLS) competition.[49] Finally, City Football Group holds a minority of shares in the Japanese club Yokohama F Marinos, while the majority belongs to Nissan Motor Company.[50] What is also interesting is that City Football Group and Nissan have an official partnership between themselves. So, we can see that City Football Group has ownerships in many of the global markets and all of these connections between players, managers moving or ownerships make football even more global.
 

In conclusion, I assume that FIFA’s direct work towards football expansion by trying to bring football throughout the world in early stages of the game, keeping up with the latest technologies to deliver the best sight for TV audience and strong sponsorship deals have made football a global phenomenal.
 


Bibliography

 

1.     BBC, ‚Paul Pogba: Manchester United re-sign France midfielder for world-record £89m‘ http://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/football/37016170, accessed 22 January 2017.

 

2.     Bevan, Chris and Jonathan Stevenson, ‚Premier League going global‘, BBC http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/eng_prem/7232378.stm, accessed 22 January 2017.

 

3.     Cave, Andrew and Alex Miller, ‚Why football’s TV deal is a game changer‘, The Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/investing/business-of-sport/premier-league-investors/, accessed 22 January 2017.

 

4.     Chelsea Football Club, ‚Chelsea and Nike announce long-term partnership‘, http://www.chelseafc.com/news/latest-news/2016/10/chelsea-and-nike-announce-long-term-partnership.html, accessed 18 January 2017.

 

5.     Chelsea Football Club, ‚Club Personnel‘, http://www.chelseafc.com/the-club/about-chelsea-football-club/club-personnel.html, accessed 22 January, 2017.

 

6.     Christopher Harris, History of Premier League being televised on US TV‘, World Soccer Talk, http://worldsoccertalk.com/2009/07/22/history-of-premier-league-on-us-tv/, accessed 22 January 2017.

 

7.     Eric Pfanner, Nissan in Marketing Deal with Owner of Manchester City Soccer Team‘, The Wall Street Journal, http://blogs.wsj.com/japanrealtime/2014/07/17/nissan-in-marketing-deal-with-owner-of-manchester-city-soccer-team/, accessed 22 January 2017.

8.     ESPN, Most expensive transfers of all-time: Pogba, Bale and Cristiano Ronaldo‘, http://www.espnfc.com/blog/soccer-usa/3/post/2915603/most-expensive-transfers-of-all-time-pogba-bale-and-cristiano-ronaldo, accessed 22 January 2017.

 

9.     Fabio Chisari, ‘When Football Went Global: Televising the 1966 World Cup‘, Football History: International Perspectives / Fußball-Geschichte: Internationale Perspektiven (2006)

 

10.  FIFA, ‚2010 FIFA World Cup™ to pioneer 3D technology‘,http://www.fifa.com/about-fifa/news/y=2009/m=12/news=2010-fifa-world-cuptm-pioneer-technology-1143253.html, accessed 22 January 2017.

 

11.  FIFA, ‚Football and Television : A Natural Partnership‘,http://www.fifa.com/about-fifa/news/y=1997/m=10/news=football-and-television-natural-partnership-72042.html, accessed 22 January 2017.

 

12.  FIFA, ‚McDonald‘s looking ahead to 2018‘, http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/news/y=2014/m=10/news=mcdonald-s-looking-ahead-to-2018-2461293.html, accessed 18 January 2017.

 

13.  FIFA, ‚Sony and FIFA announce further 4K coverage of the 2014 FIFA World Cup™‘ , http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/news/y=2014/m=4/news=sony-and-fifa-announce-further-coverage-the-2014-fifa-world-cuptm-2313778.html, accessed 22 January 2017.

 

14.  FIFA, ‚Visa‘, http://www.fifa.com/about-fifa/marketing/sponsorship/partners/visa.html, accessed 18 January 2017.

 

15.  FIFA, ‚Wanda Group‘, http://www.fifa.com/about-fifa/marketing/sponsorship/partners/wanda-group.html, accessed 18 January 2017.

 

16.  FIFA, 2014 FIFA World Cup™ reached 3.2 billion viewers, one billion watched final‘,  http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/news/y=2015/m=12/news=2014-fifa-world-cuptm-reached-3-2-billion-viewers-one-billion-watched--2745519.html, accessed 22 January 2017.

 

17.  FIFA, Adidas‘, http://www.fifa.com/about-fifa/marketing/sponsorship/partners/adidas.html, accessed 18 January 2017.

18.  FIFA, Coca-Cola‘, http://www.fifa.com/about-fifa/marketing/sponsorship/partners/coca-cola.html, accessed 18 January 2017.

 

19.  FIFA, Gazprom‘, http://www.fifa.com/about-fifa/marketing/sponsorship/partners/gazprom.html, accessed 18 January 2017.

 

20.  FIFA, http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/france1998/teams/index.html, accessed 18 January 2017.

 

21.  FIFA, http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/germany1974/teams/index.html, accessed 18 January 2017

22.  FIFA, http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/italy1934/teams/index.html, accessed 18 January 2017.

 

23.  FIFA, http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/koreajapan2002/, accessed 18 January 2017.

 

24.  FIFA, http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/mexico1970/teams/index.html, accessed 18 January 2017.

 

25.  FIFA, http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/southafrica2010/index.html, accessed 18 January 2017.

26.  FIFA, http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/spain1982/teams/index.html, accessed 18 January 2017.

 

27.  FIFA, http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/uruguay1930/teams/index.html, accessed 18 January 2017.

 

28.  FIFA, Unanimous decision expands FIFA World Cup™ to 48 teams from 2026‘, fifa.com, http://www.fifa.com/about-fifa/news/y=2017/m=1/news=fifa-council-unanimously-decides-on-expansion-of-the-fifa-world-cuptm--2863100.html, accessed 18 January 2017.

 

29.  Football Federation Australia, ‚About Us‘, http://www.melbournecityfc.com.au/about/about-us/ascwzx0fu57v1ppdt2cinx8wf, accessed 22 January 2017.

 

30.  Janine Padilla, ‚Manchester City and the New York Yankees partner to launch New York City FC‘, http://www.nycfc.com/post/2013/05/21/manchester-city-and-new-york-yankees-partner-launch-new-york-city-fc, accessed 22 January 2017.

 

31.  Jason Rodrigues, ‚Premier League football at 20: 1992, the start of a whole new ball game‘, The Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/football/from-the-archive-blog/2012/feb/02/20-years-premier-league-football-1992, accessed 22 January 2017.

 

32.  Manchester City FC, ‚Club Ownership‘, https://www.mancity.com/fans-and-community/club/corporate-information, accessed 22 January 2017.

 

33.  Premier League, ‚Barclays‘, https://www.premierleague.com/partners/barclays?utm_source=premier-league-website&utm_campaign=website&utm_medium=link, accessed 18 January 2017.

 

34.  Premier League, ‚EA SPORTS to be League's Lead Partner‘ https://www.premierleague.com/news/67814, accessed 18 January 2017.

 

35.  Premier League, ‚Global Media Platform‘, http://fanresearch.premierleague.com/global-media-platform.aspx, accessed 22 January 2017.

 

36.  Premier League, ‚History‘, https://www.premierleague.com/history, accessed 18 January 2017.

37.  Premier League, ‚Nike‘, https://www.premierleague.com/partners/nike?utm_source=premier-league-website&utm_campaign=website&utm_medium=link, accessed 18 January 2017.

 

38.  Premier League, ‚Solidarity – What the Premier League does‘, https://www.premierleague.com/about/solidarity, accessed 18 January 2017.

39.  Simon Tyers, ‚How World Cup TV coverage has changed since the 1950s‘, The Guardian,  https://www.theguardian.com/football/when-saturday-comes-blog/2014/jul/07/world-cup-tv-television-coverage-changed-1954-1958, accessed 22 January 2017

 

40.  Sky, ‚Manchester United v Liverpool: The biggest game in football‘, http://www.skysports.com/football/news/11662/9985539/manchester-united-v-liverpool-the-biggest-game-in-football, accessed 22 January 2017.

 

41.  Vivek Chaudhary, ‚How the Premier League's record TV deal will impact football in England‘, ESPN FC, http://www.espnfc.com/english-premier-league/23/blog/post/2917119/how-premier-league-record-tv-deal-will-affect-english-football, accessed 22 January 2017.


[7]FIFA, Unanimous decision expands FIFA World Cup™ to 48 teams from 2026‘, fifa.com, http://www.fifa.com/about-fifa/news/y=2017/m=1/news=fifa-council-unanimously-decides-on-expansion-of-the-fifa-world-cuptm--2863100.html, accessed 18 January 2017.

[10]Fabio Chisari, ‘When Football Went Global: Televising the 1966 World Cup‘, Football History: International Perspectives / Fußball-Geschichte: Internationale Perspektiven (2006), p. 42

[11]Simon Tyers, ‚How World Cup TV coverage has changed since the 1950s‘, The Guardian,  https://www.theguardian.com/football/when-saturday-comes-blog/2014/jul/07/world-cup-tv-television-coverage-changed-1954-1958, accessed 22 January 2017

[12]FIFA, ‚Football and Television : A Natural Partnership‘, http://www.fifa.com/about-fifa/news/y=1997/m=10/news=football-and-television-natural-partnership-72042.html, accessed 22 January 2017.

[13]Fabio Chisari, ‘When Football Went Global: Televising the 1966 World Cup‘, Football History: International Perspectives / Fußball-Geschichte: Internationale Perspektiven (2006), pp. 49 – 50.

[14]Fabio Chisari, ‘When Football Went Global: Televising the 1966 World Cup‘, Football History: International Perspectives / Fußball-Geschichte: Internationale Perspektiven (2006), p. 48

[15]FIFA, ‚Football and Television : A Natural Partnership‘,http://www.fifa.com/about-fifa/news/y=1997/m=10/news=football-and-television-natural-partnership-72042.html, accessed 22 January 2017.

[16]FIFA, ‚Football and Television : A Natural Partnership‘,http://www.fifa.com/about-fifa/news/y=1997/m=10/news=football-and-television-natural-partnership-72042.html, accessed 22 January 2017.

[17]FIFA, ‚2010 FIFA World Cup™ to pioneer 3D technology‘,http://www.fifa.com/about-fifa/news/y=2009/m=12/news=2010-fifa-world-cuptm-pioneer-technology-1143253.html, accessed 22 January 2017.

[18]FIFA, ‚Sony and FIFA announce further 4K coverage of the 2014 FIFA World Cup™‘ , http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/news/y=2014/m=4/news=sony-and-fifa-announce-further-coverage-the-2014-fifa-world-cuptm-2313778.html, accessed 22 January 2017.

[19]Jason Rodrigues, ‚Premier League football at 20: 1992, the start of a whole new ball game‘, The Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/football/from-the-archive-blog/2012/feb/02/20-years-premier-league-football-1992, accessed 22 January 2017.

[20]Christopher Harris, ‚History of Premier League being televised on US TV‘, World Soccer Talk, http://worldsoccertalk.com/2009/07/22/history-of-premier-league-on-us-tv/, accessed 22 January 2017.

[21]Christopher Harris, ‚History of Premier League being televised on US TV‘, World Soccer Talk, http://worldsoccertalk.com/2009/07/22/history-of-premier-league-on-us-tv/, accessed 22 January 2017.

[22]Bevan, Chris and Jonathan Stevenson, ‚Premier League going global‘, BBC, http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/eng_prem/7232378.stm, accessed 22 January 2017.

[23]Bevan, Chris and Jonathan Stevenson, ‚Premier League going global‘, BBC http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/eng_prem/7232378.stm, accessed 22 January 2017.

[24]Vivek Chaudhary, ‚How the Premier League's record TV deal will impact football in England‘, ESPN FC, http://www.espnfc.com/english-premier-league/23/blog/post/2917119/how-premier-league-record-tv-deal-will-affect-english-football, accessed 22 January 2017.

[25]Premier League, ‚Global Media Platform‘, http://fanresearch.premierleague.com/global-media-platform.aspx, accessed 22 January 2017.

[26]FIFA, ‚2014 FIFA World Cup™ reached 3.2 billion viewers, one billion watched final‘,  http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/news/y=2015/m=12/news=2014-fifa-world-cuptm-reached-3-2-billion-viewers-one-billion-watched--2745519.html, accessed 22 January 2017.

[27]Sky, ‚Manchester United v Liverpool: The biggest game in football‘, http://www.skysports.com/football/news/11662/9985539/manchester-united-v-liverpool-the-biggest-game-in-football, accessed 22 January 2017.

[28]Premier League, ‚Global Media Platform‘ ,http://fanresearch.premierleague.com/global-media-platform.aspx, accessed 22 January 2017.

[31] FIFA, ‚McDonald‘s looking ahead to 2018‘, http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/news/y=2014/m=10/news=mcdonald-s-looking-ahead-to-2018-2461293.html, accessed 18 January 2017.

[36]Premier League, ‚History‘, https://www.premierleague.com/history, accessed 18 January 2017.

[38]Chelsea Football Club, ‚Chelsea and Nike announce long-term partnership‘, http://www.chelseafc.com/news/latest-news/2016/10/chelsea-and-nike-announce-long-term-partnership.html, accessed 18 January 2017.

[39]Premier League, ‚EA SPORTS to be League's Lead Partner‘ https://www.premierleague.com/news/67814, accessed 18 January 2017.

[40]Premier League, ‚Solidarity – What the Premier League does‘, https://www.premierleague.com/about/solidarity, accessed 18 January 2017.

[41]Premier League, ‚Solidarity – What the Premier League does‘, https://www.premierleague.com/about/solidarity, accessed 18 January 2017.

[42]BBC, ‚Paul Pogba: Manchester United re-sign France midfielder for world-record £89m‘ http://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/football/37016170, accessed 22 January 2017.

[43]ESPN, ‚Most expensive transfers of all-time: Pogba, Bale and Cristiano Ronaldo‘, http://www.espnfc.com/blog/soccer-usa/3/post/2915603/most-expensive-transfers-of-all-time-pogba-bale-and-cristiano-ronaldo, accessed 22 January 2017.

[44]Chelsea Football Club, ‚Club Personnel‘, http://www.chelseafc.com/the-club/about-chelsea-football-club/club-personnel.html, accessed 22 January, 2017.

[45]Cave, Andrew and Alex Miller, ‚Why football’s TV deal is a game changer‘, The Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/investing/business-of-sport/premier-league-investors/, accessed 22 January 2017.

[46]Cave, Andrew and Alex Miller, ‚Why football’s TV deal is a game changer‘, The Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/investing/business-of-sport/premier-league-investors/, accessed 22 January 2017.

[47]Manchester City FC, ‚Club Ownership‘, https://www.mancity.com/fans-and-community/club/corporate-information, accessed 22 January 2017.

[48]Football Federation Australia, ‚About Us‘, http://www.melbournecityfc.com.au/about/about-us/ascwzx0fu57v1ppdt2cinx8wf, accessed 22 January 2017.

[49]Janine Padilla, ‚Manchester City and the New York Yankees partner to launch New York City FC‘, http://www.nycfc.com/post/2013/05/21/manchester-city-and-new-york-yankees-partner-launch-new-york-city-fc, accessed 22 January 2017.

[50]Eric Pfanner, ‚Nissan in Marketing Deal with Owner of Manchester City Soccer Team‘, The Wall Street Journal, http://blogs.wsj.com/japanrealtime/2014/07/17/nissan-in-marketing-deal-with-owner-of-manchester-city-soccer-team/, accessed 22 January 2017.


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